Contents - Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, Mollusca (1994-1997)
Takenori Sasaki
http://www.um.u-tokyo.ac.jp/hp/sasaki/index.htm
Introduction to the Mollusca: Barnes, R. D. & Harrison, F. W. 1994. Introduction to the Mollusca. In: Harrison, F. W. & Kohn, A. J. (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Volume 5. Mollusca I. Wiley-Liss, New York. pp. 1-12.
Aplacophora: Scheltema, A. H., Tscherkassky, M. & Kuzirian, A. M. 1994. Aplacophora. In: Harrison, F. W. & Kohn, A. J. (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Volume 5. Mollusca I. Wiley-Liss, New York. pp. 13–54.
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Introduction p. 13
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General anatomy p. 13
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Epidermis p. 17
Mantle p. 17
Vestibule p. 22
Oral shield p. 22
Foot and pedal pit p. 22
Mantle cavity p. 22
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Body-wall and lateroventral musculature p. 25
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Hemocoel and circulation p. 25
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Nervous system and sensory elements p. 27
Nervous system p. 27
Sensory elements p. 29 @
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Digestive system p. 38
Mouth opening and oral cavity p. 38
Pharynx and esophagus p. 38
Radula p. 38
Midgut p. 40
Intestine p. 44
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Reproductive system p. 44
Reproductive tract p. 44
Gametes p. 47
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Phylogenetic considerations p. 47
Polyplacophora: Eernisse, D. J. & Reynolds, P. D. 1994. Polyplacophora. In: Harrison, F. W. & Kohn, A. J. (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Volume 5. Mollusca I. Wiley-Liss, New York. pp. 55-110.
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Introduction p. 55
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External features p. 57
Shells p. 58
Girdle p. 64
Epidermis p. 64
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Muscle and connective tissue p. 65
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Digestive system p. 67
Radula p. 69
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Respiration p. 71
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Circulatory system p. 74
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Excretory system p. 78
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Nervous system and sensory organs p. 81
Larval ocelli p. 83
Esthetes p. 84
Girdle sensory structures p. 92
Osphradia p. 94
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Reproduction p. 97
Female reproductive system p. 97
Male reproductive system p. 99
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Conclusions p. 103
Prosobranchia: Voltzow, J. 1994. Gastropoda: Prosobranchia. In: Harrison, F. W. & Kohn, A. J. (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Volume 5. Mollusca I. Wiley-Liss, New York. pp. 111-252.
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Introduction p. 111
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External and gross anatomy p. 116
Head and foot p. 116
Mantle and shell p. 119
Visceral mass p. 119
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Epithelia and integumentary structures p. 119
Basic structural features p. 119
Functional diversity p. 121
Specialized epithelia p. 123
Mantle edge p. 123
Pedal sole p. 126
Intracellular deposits p. 126
Calcium p. 126
Pigment p. 126
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Glands and secretions p. 126
Mucous glands p. 126
Pedal epithelium p. 126
Mantle p. 130
Hypobranchial gland p. 130
Functional morphology of mucus p. 131
Acid glands p. 132
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Connective tissue p. 133
Distribution and organization p. 133
Structural elements p. 135
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Muscle p. 137
Tissue organization and function p. 138
Visceral musculature p. 138
Cardiac muscle p. 141
Foot p. 141
Locomotion p. 146
Tentacles p. 146
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Shell p. 147
External morphology p. 147
Functional morphology p. 148
Shell layers p. 152
Periostracum p. 152
Nacre p. 152
Prismatic layer p. 152
Crossed-lamellar structures p. 154
Foliated p. 155
Homogeneous p. 155
Myostracum p. 155
Shell formation p. 155
Growth and remodeling p. 156
Mechanical properties p. 157
Pigmentation p. 157
Operculum p. 158
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Digestive system p. 158
Alimentary canal p. 159
Mouth, lips, jaws p. 159
Radular apparatus p. 162
Esophagus p. 168
Stomach p. 170
Digestive gland p. 173
Intestine p. 175
Rectum p. 175
Feeding biology and specialized structures p. 175
Detritivores/grazers p. 176
Suspension feeders p. 176
Herbivores p. 177
Carnivores p. 177
Parasites p. 178
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Respiratory system p. 178
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Circulatory system p. 181
General organization p. 181
Blood p. 182
Hemolymph p. 182
Respiratory pigments p. 183
Cells p. 183
Heart p. 184
Blood vessels and sinuses p. 185
Functions p. 186
Support p. 186
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Excretion p. 188
Internal defense p. 188
Excretion p. 189
Excretion in archaeogastropods p. 191
Excretion in Caenogastropods p. 194
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Reproduction p. 195
Life cycles p. 195
Overview p. 196
Male reproductive system p. 198
Sperm structure p. 198
Spermatogenesis p. 202
Male genital duct p. 205
Female reproductive system p. 206
Ovary and oogenesis p. 206
Female genital duct p. 209
Mating and fertilization p. 211
Chromosomes p. 214
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Nervous system p. 214
General organization p. 214
Ganglia p. 216
Peripheral nerves p. 217
Neuromuscular junctions p. 218
Neurotransmitters p. 219
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Endocrine system p. 220
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Sensory structures p. 222
General overview p. 222
Chemoreceptors p. 222
Osphradium p. 222
Other chemoreceptors p. 225
Statocysts p. 227
Photoreceptors p. 229
Magnetoreception p. 231
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Evolutionary trends p. 231
Opisthobranchia: Gosliner, T. M. 1994. Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia. In: Harrison, F. W. & Kohn, A. J. (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Volume 5. Mollusca I. Wiley-Liss, New York. pp. 253–355.
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Introduction p. 253
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External anatomy p. 254
Shell p. 254
Operculum p. 260
Detorsion p. 260
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Epithelial and integumentary structures p. 260
Ciliation p. 260
Other epithelial cell types p. 260
Kleptoplasty and endosymbiosis p. 262
Nematocysts p. 262
Epidermal vesicles p. 262
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Glands and secretion p. 263
Mantle glands p. 263
Acid glands p. 264
Cellules speciales p. 264
Pedal glands p. 264
Pallial gland p. 264
Yellow gland p. 265
Opaline gland p. 265
Purple gland p. 266
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Connective tissue and supportive structures p. 266
Connective tissue p. 266
Muscles p. 266
Spicules p. 266
Caryophyllidia p. 267
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Circulatory system p. 267
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Digestive system p. 269
General arrangement of organs p. 269
Oral glands p. 270
Buccal mass p. 271
Jaws p. 272
Radula p. 276
Salivary glands p. 302
Hook sacs and buccal cones p. 302
Ptyaline glands p. 303
Esophageal caecum p. 303
Gizzard and crop p. 303
Gizzard plates p. 304
Stomach p. 308
Digestive gland p. 308
Ceratal arrangement p. 309
Intestine p. 309
Anus p. 309
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Respiratory structures and gas exchange p. 309
Ctenidium p. 309
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Excretory system p. 312
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Reproductive system p. 312
General configuration of reproductive system p. 312
Ovotestis p. 316
Ultrastructure of spermatozoa p. 316
Ampulla p. 318
Receptaculum seminis p. 319
Albumen gland p. 320
Membrane gland p. 322
Mucous gland p. 322
Egg mass p. 322
Bursa copulatrix p. 322
Prostae p. 323
Penis p. 323
Vagina p. 322
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Endocrine system and elements p. 335
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Nervous system and sensory elements p. 336
Plesiomorphic configuration and ganglia p. 336
Euthyneury p. 338
Cephalization and fusion of ganglia p. 340
Shortening of the visceral loop p. 340
Position of the circumesophageal nerve ring p. 341
Cerebral ganglia and nerves p. 341
Pleural ganglia and nerves p. 341
Pedal ganglia and nerves p. 342
Parietal ganglia and nerves p. 342
Supraintestinal ganglion and nerves p. 344
Subintestinal ganglion and nerves p. 344
Visceral ganglion and nerves p. 344
Genital ganglion and nerves p. 345
Buccal ganglia p. 345
Gastroesophageal ganglia p. 345
Gigant neurons p. 345
Hancockfs organs p. 345
Rhinophores p. 346
Oral tentacles p. 348
Other sensory structures p. 348
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Phylogeny p. 350
Bivalvia: Morse, M. P. & Zardus, J. D. 1997. Bivalvia. In: Harrison, F. W. & Kohn, A. J. (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Volume 6A. Mollusca II. Wiley-Liss, New York. pp. 7-118.
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Introduction p. 7
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Gross anatomy p. 8
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Integument p. 12
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Shell formation p. 14
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Mucins p. 17
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Muscles p. 22
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Ctenidia p. 22
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Digestion p. 33
Labial palps, mouth and esophagus p. 33
Stomach, style, and style sac p. 40
Primary and secondary ducts, digestive diverticula, and intestine p. 45
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Excretion and heart-kidney system p. 50
Podocytes and pericardial glands p. 50
Kidney p. 53
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Blood p. 54
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Pore cells p. 59
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Nervous system p. 63
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Sensory structures p. 69
Primary ciliary receptors p. 69
Eyes p. 74
Statocyst p. 77
Osphradium p. 79
Abdominal sense organ p. 80
Stempellfs organ p. 81
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Oogenesis p. 81
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Spermatogensis, spermiogenesis, and sperm p. 86
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Embryogenesis and larvae p. 95
Cephalopoda: Budelmann, B. U., Schipp, R. & von Boletzky, S. 1997. Cephalopoda. In: Harrison, F. W. & Kohn, A. J. (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Volume 6A. Mollusca II. Wiley-Liss, New York. pp. 119-414.
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Introduction p. 119
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Systematics p. 121
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External and gross anatomy p. 122
Head/foot p. 124
Collar, mantle, fins and shells p. 128
Mantle cavity p. 128
Body cavities p. 128
Visceral mass p. 129
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Surface epithelia and integumentary structures p. 129
Dermal cushions and tubercles p. 129
Suckers p. 131
Skin and surface epithelia p. 131
Chromatic elements p. 137
Chromatophore organs p. 139
Iridophores p. 143
Reflector cells p. 144
Leucophores p. 144
Luminescent organs p. 144
Intrinsic photophores p. 148
Bacterial photophores p. 152
Hoylefs organ, terminal spine, and Köllikerfs organ p. 153
Hoylefs organ p. 155
Terminal spine p. 157
Köllikerfs organ p. 157
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Connective tissue p. 157
Cell types p. 157
Fibroblasts (fibrocytes) p. 157
Blood cells p. 160
Coated cells p. 160
Vesiculated cells p. 160
Extracellular matrix and fibers p. 160
Elastin p. 161
Collagen p. 161
Cartilage p. 161
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Muscular system p. 163
Functional morphology p. 163
Mantle p. 166
Fins p. 168
Cirri, tentacles, and arms p. 168
Suckers p. 170
Eye muscles p. 174
Radula muscles p. 174
Chromatophore muscle p. 174
Ultrastructure p. 175
Obliquely striated muscles p. 175
Cross striated muscles p. 177
Nuromuscular junctions p. 178
Biochemistry p. 182
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Shell p. 182
Calcified shells p. 183
Chitinous pens (Gladii) p. 187
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Digestive system p. 189
Buccal mass and salivary glands p. 190
Beaks p. 191
Radula p. 192
Salivary glands p. 193
Digestive tube p. 196
Esophagus and crop p. 196
Stomach p. 196
Caecum p. 198
Digestive duct appendages (gpancreas appendagesh) p. 200
Digestive gland (or midgut gland, or hepatopancreas) p. 200
Ink gland complex p. 210
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Respiratory system p. 213
Coleoidea p. 215
Nautiloidea p. 220
Blood and blood synthesizing organs p. 222
Hematocytes p. 222
Vacuolized round cells p. 224
White body p. 225
Hemocyanin p. 228
Branchial glands p. 228
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Circulatory system p. 235
Systemic heart p. 235
Epicardium p. 236
Myocardium p. 237
Endocardium p. 238
Cardiomyocytes p. 238
Innervation p. 241
Neuromuscular synaposes p. 243
Branchial hearts and their appendages p. 243
Blood vessels p. 247
Large vessels p. 247
Larger arteries p. 247
Medium and small vessels p. 252
Collecting and large transport veins p. 253
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Excretory system p. 254
Pericardial appendages (Coleoidea) p. 254
Renal appendages (Coleoidea) p. 258
Pancreas appendages (Coleoidea) p. 261
Pericardial appendages (Nautiloidea) p. 264
Renal appendages (Nautiloidea) p. 271
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Reproductive system p. 271
Gonads p. 272
Ovary p. 272
Testis p. 277
Duct and accessory glands p. 280
Copulatory organs p. 285
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Development p. 288
Eggs p. 288
Embryogensis p. 288
Postembryonic development p. 298
Optic glands p. 298
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Nervous system p. 303
Central nervous system p. 307
Brain p. 312
Optic lobes p. 327
Blood-brain barrier p. 239
Peripheral nervous system p. 329
Arm nerve cords and sucker ganglia p. 337
Giant fiber system p. 339
Stellate ganglion and giant synapse p. 342
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Sensory systems p. 345
Photoreceptors p. 346
Extraocular photoreceptors p. 357
Mechanoreceptors p. 362
Statocysts p. 362
Vibration receptors and hearing p. 375
 gLateral line systemh p. 376
Neck proprioceptors p. 376
Sucker mechanoreceptors p. 377
Muscle receptors p. 379
Chemoreceptors p. 380
Distance chemoreceptors p. 381
Contact chemoreceptors p. 383
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Evolutionary trends in functional morphology p. 383
Monoplacophora: Haszprunar, G. & Schaefer, K. 1997. Monoplacophora. In: Harrsion, F. W. & Kohn, A. J. (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Volume 6B, Mollusca II. Wiley-Liss, New York. pp. 415–457.
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Phylogeny and classification p. 415
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Shell p. 416
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External morphology p. 419
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Internal gross anatomy and seriality of organs p. 419
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Integument p. 420
General remarks p. 420
Mantle cavity (less ctenidia) p. 420
Mantle margin p. 423
Dorsal mantle p. 427
Foot sole p. 427
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Connective tissue and musculature p. 428
Body cavities p. 428
Muscle system and cells p. 428
Hemocytes p. 428
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Ctenidia p. 431
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Circulatory and excretory system p. 435
Heart p. 435
Sinuses p. 438
Nephridia p. 438
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Genital system and gametes p. 442
Gonad p. 442
Testis and sperm p. 442
Ovary and eggs p. 442
Development p. 442
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Digestive system p. 442
Pharynx p. 442
Radula and associated structures p. 446
Esophagus p. 446
Stomach and midgut gland p. 450
Intestine and rectum p. 450
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Nervous and sensory systems p. 454
Nervous system p. 454
Sense organs p. 456
Pulmonata: Luchtel, D. L., Martin, A. E., Detrup-Olsen, I. & Boer, H. H. 1997. Gastropoda: Pulmonata. In: Harrison, F. W. & Kohn, A. J. (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Volume 6B. Mollusca II. Wiley-Liss, New York. pp. 459-718.
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Introduction p. 459
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Integument and shell p. 461
Integument p. 461
Epithelial and subepithelial cells p. 263
Secretory glands p. 466
Mucus and fluid regulation p. 466
Sensory structures p. 470
Shell p. 481
General features of shells p. 481
The periostracum p. 482
The ostracum p. 483
Attachment of the shell p. 486
The reduced shell of terrestrial slugs p. 488
Factors controlling shell formation and repair p. 493
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Muscle and connective tissue p. 495
Muscle p. 495
Muscle types p. 502
Innervation p. 507
Connective tissue p. 509
Pore cells p. 509
Calcium cells p. 510
Granular cells p. 510
Vesicular connective tissue or glycogen cells p. 510
Fibroblasts and undifferentiated cells p. 512
Pigment cells p. 512
Amebocytes p. 512
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Circulation p. 515
Blood volume p. 516
Blood solutes p. 517
Osmotic pressure p. 517
Homocyanin p. 519
Hemoglobin p. 520
Other blood proteins p. 522
Blood cells p. 524
Amebocytes p. 524
Hyalinocytes p. 526
Functions of amebocytes p. 527
The heart complex p. 529
Pericardium p. 530
Auricle p. 531
Ventricle p. 533
Control of cardiac output p. 535
Aorta p. 540
Arteries, capillaries, sinuses and veins p. 542
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Digestive system p. 545
The mouth and buccal apparatus p. 549
The buccal apparatus in Otina otis p. 549
Structure and formation of the radula p. 553
The digestive tract-esophagus to rectum p. 562
The salivary glands p. 569
The digestive gland p. 579
Diversity in the digestive gland structure p. 588
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Respiratory system p. 591
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Excretory system p. 599
Filtration p. 601
Secretion p. 610
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Reproductive system p. 624
Ovotestis p. 625
Spermatogensis and spermatozoa p. 630
Oogensis and oocytes p. 636
Reproductive tract p. 644
Development p. 651
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Central nervous system p. 661
Anatomy p. 663
Histology p. 667
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Neuropeptidergic systems p. 669
Neurosecretion p. 669
Neuropeptidergic cells p. 671
Homology p. 672
 gNeurohormonalh neuropeptidergic systems p. 672
Light green cells (LGG) p. 673
Caudodorsal cells (CDC) p. 678
Dark green cells (DGC), yellow-green cells (YGC), and yellow cells (YC) p. 684
Light yellow cells (LYC) p. 687
The VD1/PRD2 system p. 689
 gNon-neurohormonalh neuropeptidergic systems p. 693
FMRFamide systems p. 693
The APGWamide system p. 695
 gVertebrateh neuropeptides p. 697
Classic transmitters p. 699
Dorsal bodies p. 700
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Concluding remarks p. 701
Scaphopoda: Shimek, R. L. & Steiner, G. 1997. Scaphopoda. In: Harrison, F. W. & Kohn, A. J. (eds.). Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Volume 6B. Mollusca II. Wiley-Liss, New York. pp. 719-781.
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Introduction p. 719
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Foot p. 721
External appearance (Dentaliida) p. 721
Morphology (Dentaliida) p. 722
Function (Dentaliida) p. 724
External appearance (Gadilida) p. 726
Morphology (Gadilida) p. 727
Function (Gadilida) p. 730
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Body wall and integument p. 731
Mantle and mantle cavity p. 731
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Feeding, trophic apparatus, and foregut morphology p. 740
Prey, food capture, and feeding p. 740
Feeding apparatus p. 740
The foot p. 740
The captacula p. 742
Captacular function p. 743
Mouth and buccal tube (Proboscis) p. 745
Jaw p. 746
Radula p. 746
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Gut p. 756
Esophagus p. 756
Stomach and midgut gland p. 757
Intestine p. 760
Rectum p. 760
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Shell p. 762
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Circulatory system p. 765
Blood p. 765
Circulatory system p. 766
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Excretory system p. 771
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Reproduction and development p. 771
Gonad p. 771
Testis p. 771
Ovary p. 772
Oogenesis p. 772
Spermatogensis p. 773
Development p. 773
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Nervous system p. 774
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Sensory structures p. 778